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Terms and Notions Used in the Parliamentary Practice

Terms and Notions Used in the Parliamentary Practice

Electorate - citizens that have the right to vote. Citizens of the Republic of Moldova that reached the 18 years age, inclusive in the day of the election, have the right to elect, excepting those who deprive of this right in the way established by the law.

Article - basic structural element of the normative act that contains, in principle, independent stipulations.

Standing Bureau - the working body of the Parliament that is formed taking into account the proportional representation of the factions in the Parliament. The Chairman of the Parliament and his Deputy Chairmen are its ex officio members.

Standing Committee - the working body of the Parliament, this is set up for the effectuation of the Parliament's activity.

Special Committee - the working body of the Parliament constituted for the elaboration of some complex legislative acts, for their expertise or for the other reasons. The legislative acts elaborated by the special committee are not subject of examination in other committees.

Inquire Committee - the working body of the Parliament established on the requirement of a parliamentary faction or a group of deputies, for the investigation of some actions or causes.

The Legal Constitution of Parliament - the Parliament is considered legal constituted after the validation of 2/3 from the mandates of deputies by the Constitutional Court.

The Constitutional Court - the authority of constitutional jurisdiction that decides on the questions that have as objective the constitutionality of the normative acts. The Constitutional Court is the single authority of constitutional jurisdiction and it is subdued only to the Constitution.

Decree - which is emitted by the President of the State for the exercise of his duties.

Member of the Parliament (MP) - the person elected through universal, equal, direct, secret and free expressed vote.

Faction - group of MP based on the criterion of affiliation at a party or a political current.

Government - collegiate body formed by the Prime minister, Deputy Prime minister, ministers, which ensures the achievement of the home and foreign policy of the state and exercises the general leadership of the public administration. The President of the Republic of Moldova, after the consultation with the parliamentary majority, assigns the candidate for the function of Prime minister and names the Government on the base of trust vote granted by the Parliament.

Decision - act emitted by the Parliament and Government in conditions stipulated by the law and in its execution.

Parliamentary Immunity - the right in the base of which deputies cannot be held, arrested, searched, excepting cases of flagrant offence, or when they are sent in judgment without the permission of the Parliament, after the hearing of the MP.

Legislative Initiative - the text of the law submitted to the MP's for the adoption. In the Republic of Moldova, the right of legislative initiative belongs to the Members of the Parliament, the President of the Republic of Moldova and the Government.

Law - normative act which emanates from the legislative body of the state and through which are settled certain social relations. In the Republic of Moldova, the Parliament is the single legislative authority.

Legislature - the period of mandate of the Parliament staff (4 years) till the legal constitution of a new Parliament.

Mandate -means in the same time the mission entrusted by electors to a selected person and the duration of this mission.

Monitorul Oficial - official press body of Republic of Moldova, edited by the National Press Agency "Moldpres", in which are published laws and decisions of Parliament, decree of the President of the Republic of Moldova, decisions of the Government as well as other normative acts of the state institutions. The normative acts come into force after their publication in the "Monitorul Oficial".

Motion of Cenorship - distrusts position expressed by the Parliament to the Government's activity, adopted with the vote of a majority of the MP's. If the Parliament votes the censorship motion to the Government, then the Prime minister will present, during at the most 3 days, to the President of the state the resignation of the Government.

Agenda -the list of cases which deputies have to analyze within the framework of a session.

The Draft Paper of the Law - the draft paper of the law proposed to the Parliament for the adoption by MP's, President of the state, Government.

Promulgation - act initiated by the President of the State that signifies acceptance of the adopted law by the Parliament. The President of Republic of Moldova is in right , in the case in which he has objections concerning a law, to send it for reexamination to the Parliament, during at the most two weeks. The President promulgates the law, in the case in which the Parliament maintains its decision adopted previously. The promulgated law follows to be published in the "Monitorul official".

Legislative Power - representative supreme authority of the state power authorized by the people with the adoption of laws right.

Session - period, during on which the Parliament brings together for the unfolding of its sessions. The Parliament brings together in two ordinary sessions in a year. Spring session begins in February and cannot overtake the end of July. Autumn session begins in September and cannot overtake the end of December. The Parliament brings together in extraordinary or special sessions, too, at the request of the President of Republic of Moldova, the Chairman of the Parliament or of a 1/3 from the number of the MP's.

Direct Elections - the act through which citizens which have the right to vote elect in an immediate way candidates proposed by political parties, social-political organizations, electoral blocks or groups of citizens in order to be invested in a certain elective function.

Indirect Elections - the act through which the candidates are not elected immediately by the electorate but by their representatives.

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